Frontend architecture of this website

Table of Contents

Let me introduce the architecture of this website (

React Framework: Next.js

I chose Next.js because it was easier to implement internationalization than Gatsby.js. This is my first time making a website using Next.js.

I'd been trying to make a website with Gatsby.js at first.

Gatsby.js is very useful and easy for developing websites not very "React apps", but I felt it's not that capable of multilingual websites. One of the reasons is its internationalization/localization plugins are a bit outdated; Official plugins or third-party's are not updated for years, moreover, official plugins' GitHub pages return "404 not found".


With Next.js, the internationalization is very simple; just add an i18n settings into next.config.js.

next.config.js of this website (extracted)

/** @type {import('next').NextConfig} */
const nextConfig = {
  reactStrictMode: true,
  swcMinify: true,
  i18n: {
    locales: ["en", "fr", "ja"],
    defaultLocale: "en",
  trailingSlash: true,

module.exports = nextConfig

Of course, you need to add other settings for SEO, but all the local links will be redirected automatically to appropriate language pages only with this setting. I don't use any libraries or modules.

UI Framework: none

No UI Framework is installed. Only css modules.

Headless CMS: none (only Markdown)

Though I was making this website with DatoCMS first, their free plan includes only 300 records, which is too small. So I re-made this with local Markdown contents.

If you are planning a website with less than two languages, Contentful offers a good internationalization option with their free plan (including 25k records). As I wanted three languages this time, I didn't choose it.

As DatoCMS provides all the data with GraphQL, it was not that difficult for me who knows Gatsby.js. Its Real-time Preview is practical too.

Hosting: Vercel

I preferred Cloudflare Pages as a host, but with the i18n setting, Next.js doesn't support next export which is required to deploy Next.js on them. So, I had no choice but Vercel (it worked on Netlify as well, though)


  • Comment system - giscus
  • Webfont - Fontawesome
  • Syntax highlighter - Prism.js
  • Translation - me😅 with a lot of help by DeepL and dictionaries...


I built this website as studying Next.js at the same time. Though I got flustered with the difference between Next.js and Gatsby.js, hopefully I made it.

As I understood how to make a multilingual website, I'd like to re-build my WordPress WPML sites with Next.js soon.